Top Thema

Crypto Atlas

In welchen Ländern gibt es eine Regulierung der Nutzung von Verschlüsselungstechnologien?

In dem Cyberraum wir immer mehr zu dem Stichwort „Crypto-Wars“ diskutiert. Hierbei geht es um das Spannungsfeld von Regulierung der Staaten, um Verschlüsselung einerseits für die Strafverfolgung aufzubrechen und um die Gewährleistung sicherer Verschlüsselung und auch Anonymisierung im Netz, um die Bürger vor Überwachung von Staaten und vor allem Cybercrime zu schützen. Dabei geht es nicht nur um den NSA Skandal, sondern langfristig auch um die Frage, in was für einer (Cyber-)Welt wir leben werden und wollen. Diese Debatte braucht aber auch Versachlichung. Diese will der Bitkom durch das Projekt Crypto-Atlas ein Stück weit schaffen. Hier schauen wir in einem klassischen Content 2.0 Projekt auf die vorhandenen Regulierungen zum Thema und wollen den Blick in die Welt öffnen. Wir beleuchten in welchen Ländern Regulierungen zur Nutzung von Verschlüsselungstechnologien bereits vorhanden sind und wie sich diese Länder aufstellen. Es wird der Fokus darauf gerichtet, ob die Nutzung eingeschränkt ist, ob Verschlüsselung eingeführt oder Exportiert werden darf. Damit wollen wir die Reisesicherheit für Tourismus oder Dienstreisen und Expats aufzeigen aber auch die Marktchancen für die Deutsche Verschlüsselungstechnologie beleuchten.

Falls Sie weitere Erkenntnisse oder Erfahrungen aus diesem Land beitragen können, wenden Sie sich bitte an uns und teilen diese. Sie erreichen den Bitkom über den Kontakt oder über bitkom@bitkom.org .

Beteiligen Sie sich auch gerne aktiv als Mitglied über den Arbeitskreis Wirtschaftsschutz

Bild zum Ansprechpartner

Marc Bachmann

Bereichsleiter Luftfahrt und Verteidigung Bitkom e.V.
Country Wassenaar signatory? Import restrictions Export restrictions Domestic use restrictions
Argentina Yes None None None
Australia Yes None Export regulated in accordance with Wassenaar. Exemptions for public domain software and personal-use. Approval is also required for software that does not contain cryptography but includes a plug-in interface for adding cryptography. None
Austria Yes Follows EU regulations and Wassenaar Arrangement. Follows EU regulations and Wassenaar Arrangement. Laws forbid encrypting international radio transmissions of corporations and organizations.
Bangladesh     None apparent. None apparent.
Belarus   Import requires license Export requires license. A license is required for design, production, sale, repair, and operation of cryptography.
Belgium Yes   Requires license for exporting outside of the Benelux. None currently, although regulations are under consideration.
Burma   Import may be regulated by the Myanmar Computer Science Development Council. None currently, but export may be regulated by the Myanmar Computer Science Development Council. Use of cryptography may require license.
Brazil     None None
Canada Yes Follows pre-December 1998 Wassenaar. Follows pre-December 1998 Wassenaar regulations. Public domain and mass-market software can be freely exported. None
Chile     None None
People's Republic of China   Requires license by State Encryption Management Commission for hardware or software where the encryption is a core function. Requires license by State Encryption Management Commission for hardware or software where the encryption is a core function. Use of products for which cryptography is a core function is restricted to specific products using preapproved algorithms and key lengths.
Columbia     None None
Costa Rica     None None
Czech Republic Yes Import allowed if the product is not to be used “for production, development, collection or use of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons.” Export controls are not enforced. None
Denmark Yes   Some export controls in accordance with Wassenaar. None
Egypt   Importers must be registered.   None
Estonia     Export controlled in accordance with Wassenaar.  
Finland Yes   Export requires license in accordance with EU Recommendation and Wassenaar, although a license is not required for mass-market goods. None
France Yes Some imports may require a license depending on intended function and key length. Some exports may require a license depending on intended function and key length. France liberalized its domestic regulations in March 1999, allowing the use of keys up to 128 bits. Work is underway on a new law that will eliminate domestic restrictions on cryptography.
Germany Yes Follows EU regulations and Wassenaar Arrangement. Follows EU regulations and Wassenaar; companies can decide for themselves if a product falls within the mass-market category. None
Greece Yes Follows pre-December 1998 Wassenaar. Follows pre-December 1998 Wassenaar. None
Hong Kong   Import requires license License required for export. None, although encryption products connected to public telecommunication networks must comply with the relevant Telecommunications Authority’s network connection specifications.
Hungary Yes Mirror regulations requiring an import license if an export license is needed from Hungary. Mass-market encryption software is exempted. Mirror regulations requiring an import license if an export license is needed from Hungary. Mass-market encryption software is exempted. None
Iceland     None None
India   License required for import.   None
Indonesia     Unclear Unclear
Ireland Yes No import controls. Export regulated under Wassenaar; no restrictions on the export of software with 64-bit key lengths. Electronic Commerce Act 2000 gives judges the power to issue search warrants that require decryption.
Israel   Import require a license from the Director-General of the Ministry of Defense. Export require a license from the Director-General of the Ministry of Defense. Use, manufacture, transport, and distribution of cryptography within Israel requires a license from the Director-General of the Ministry of Defense, although no prosecutions for using unlicensed cryptography are known and many Israeli users apparently do not have licenses.
Italy Yes Follows EU regulations. Follows EU regulations. Encrypted records must be accessible to the Treasury.
Japan     Export regulations mirror pre-December 1998 Wassenaar. Businesses must have approval for export of cryptography orders larger than 50,000 yen. None
Kazakhstan   Import requires license Requires license. License from the Committee of National Security required for research, development, manufacture, repair, and sale of cryptographic products.
Kyrgyzstan     None None
Latvia   Mirrors EU regulations. Mirrors EU regulations. None
Luxembourg Yes Follows pre-December 1998 Wassenaar. Follows pre-December 1998 Wassenaar. None
Malaysia     None None
Mexico     None None
Moldova   Import requires a license from the Ministry of National Security. Export requires a license from the Ministry of National Security. Use requires a license from the Ministry of National Security.
Netherlands Yes Follows Wassenaar. No license required for export to Belgium or Luxemburg. Follows Wassenaar. No license required for export to Belgium or Luxemburg. Police can order the decryption of encrypted information, but not by the suspect.
New Zealand Yes Follows Wassenaar. Approval is also required for software that is designed for plug-in cryptography. Follows Wassenaar. Approval is also required for software that is designed for plug-in cryptography. None
Norway Yes Follows Wassenaar. Follows Wassenaar. None
Pakistan     None Sale and use of encryption requires prior approval.
Philippines     None Unclear
Poland   Follows Wassenaar. Follows Wassenaar. None
Portugal Yes Follows pre-December 1998 Wassenaar. Follows pre-December 1998 Wassenaar. None
Romania Yes No import controls. Exports according to Wassenaar. None
Russia   License required for import License required for export. Licenses required for some uses.
Saudi Arabia     None “It is reported that Saudi Arabia prohibits use of encryption, but that this is widely ignored.”
Singapore   No restrictions. No restrictions. Hardware equipment connected directly to the telecommunications infrastructure requires approval. Police, with the consent of the Public Prosecutor, may compel decryption of encrypted materials.
Slovakia Yes In accordance with pre-December 1998 Wassenaar. In accordance with pre-December 1998 Wassenaar. None
Slovenia     None None
South Africa   Import controls only apply to military cryptography. Export controls only apply to military cryptography. No regulations for commercial use or private organizations. Use by government bodies requires prior approval.
South Korea Yes Import of encryption devices forbidden by government policy, not legislation. Import of encryption software is not controlled. Export in accordance with Wassenaar. None
Spain     Export in accordance with Wassenaar and EU regulations. None apparent.
Sweden     Export follows Wassenaar. Export of 128-bit symmetric mass-market software allowed to a list of 61 countries. Use of equipment to decode encrypted radio and television transmissions is regulated.
Switzerland   Import is not controlled. Export mirrors Wassenaar. Some uses may be regulated.
Turkey   Follows pre-December 1998 Wassenaar controls. Follows pre-December 1998 Wassenaar controls. No obvious restrictions.
United Kingdom   Follows EU and Wassenaar restrictions on export. Follows EU and Wassenaar restrictions on export. Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 gives the government the power to disclose the content of encrypted data.
United Stated of America Yes Restriction on boarder entry according to patriot act. Few export restrictions. None
Uruguay     None None
Venezuela     None None
Vietnam   Import requires license.    

Diesen Beitrag teilen